Document Type


Publication Date



Despite the tangible contributions of the construction industry to social development and economic growth, it is known for its natural resources overconsumption and solid waste (SW) generation both of which have major negative impacts on the natural environment. In the particular case of materials waste, the construction industry worldwide accounts for about 50% of global annual generated SW. In addition, construction materials may contribute up to 50% of the total project cost. Accordingly, the negative implications of the construction industry have compelled many nations to develop green building rating systems in order to preserve the environment, promote the economic efficiency of using resources, and enhance the quality of citizens’ lives which are necessary aspects for achieving the triple bottom line (TBL) of sustainability. Recently, Egypt developed the Green Pyramid Rating System (GPRS) in its first version in 2011. Through investigating the GPRS and especially its Materials and Resources (M&R) category, some shortcomings were identified. Towards improving the GPRS, this paper aims to investigate the GPRS and compare it with its peers BREEAM and LEED with a special focus on M&R category. The investigation and comparison results helped proposing suggestions which may improve the GPRS on the categorical level and the criteria level of M&R category. Moreover, the importance of M&R category is demonstrated by a case study through using palm fronds as a green material for concrete reinforcement to prove the positive impact of this category on the TBL of sustainability.