Numerical approach of variable thermophysical features of dissipated viscous nanofluid comprising gyrotactic micro-organisms

Document Type


Publication Date



This article addresses the heat and mass transport phenomena by performing a theoretical analysis of three-dimensional viscous fluid flow containing gyrotactic micro-organisms over a nonlinear stretched surface. Variable magnetic field is considered normal to the stretched surface to control the fluid flow. Thermal transportation is discussed in view of variable thermal conductivity. Variable characteristics of mass diffusion along with chemical reaction are incorporated in mass transportation. Darcy–Forchheimer expression is used to characterise the porous medium. Also, Brownian motion and thermophoresis are incorporated to enhance the diffusion. The governing partial differential equations (PDEs) are derived using boundary layer analysis by assuming small magnetic Reynolds number. Appropriate transformation is used to convert complex system of coupled PDEs into nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs). Transformed problem is then tackled analytically using optimal homotopic procedure. Reliability of the suggested scheme is presented through error reduction table and also by comparing the obtained solution with the published ones. Graphs and tables are prepared to observe the impact of parameters on physical variables. Dimensionless stresses and rate of heat transfer are computed numerically. It has been observed that larger values of Brownian diffusion and thermophoresis increase the fluid temperature. Moreover, dimensionless stresses and rate of heat transfer are computed to check the reliability of the proposed procedure. These values are clearly in an excellent agreement with the previous findings reported in literature.