University Technology Transfer Efficiency in a Factor Driven Economy: The Need for a Coherent Policy in Egypt
The article examines the effectiveness of instruments to promote technology transfer and foster entrepreneurial innovation in Egypt where there are individual measures but no com- prehensive, unified policy or strategy to promote the transfer and commercialisation of the intellectual property stemming from university research. The study examines the extent of technology transfer in the country and the effectiveness of the various existing measures through a four-phase investigation involving in-depth interviews with experts, a question- naire survey of 400 Egyptian Science, Engineering and Technology academics, three case studies of Technology Transfer Offices and a 237 respondent industry survey. The results indicate that despite the measures that have been introduced, there is little university– industry collaboration and that the interventions are of limited effectiveness. The article concludes that there is a need for a broad, national co-ordinating policy that encourages universities and industry to collaborate, particularly on research, and to engage in the trans- ference and commercialisation of technology.