Document Type


Publication Date



This study examines the effect of cultural variables on entrepreneurs’ networks in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region countries and Denmark. Using data collected by the GEM surveys and clustered for the purpose of this research, analysis is undertaken on the effect of cultural variables on entrepreneurs’ private networks in addition to their work, professional, market and international networks. The major cultural contrast in the empirical analysis is between Denmark and the MENA countries. Traditionalism dominates in the MENA region while secular-rationalism pervades Denmark: trust is widespread in Denmark, but more limited to family members in MENA; and collectivism prevails in MENA while Denmark is more individualistic. Analyses show that both traditional culture and collectivism promote networking in the private sphere, which explains the intensity of private networking in MENA and the lower level of private networking in Denmark. Trust in society, generally promotes networking, and specifically networking in the public spheres of the work-place, the professions, the market and the international environment. This explains the greater prevalence and intensity of networks and networking in the public domain in Denmark compared to that in the MENA region.