This paper reported a scientific approach adopting microwave-assisted synthesis as a synthetic route for preparing highly active palladium nanoparticles stabilized by polyvinylpyrrolidone (Pd/PVP) and supported on reduced Gra-phene oxide (rGO) as a highly active catalyst used for Suzuki, Heck, and Sonogashira cross coupling reactions with remarkable turnover number (6500) and turnover frequency of 78000 h-1. Pd/PVP nanoparticles supported on re-duced Graphene oxide nanosheets (Pd-PVP/rGO) showed an outstanding performance through high catalytic activ-ity towards cross coupling reactions. A simple, reproducible, and reliable method was used to prepare this efficient catalyst using microwave irradiation synthetic conditions. The synthesis approach requires simultaneous reduc-tion of palladium and in the presence of Gaphene oxide (GO) nanosheets using ethylene glycol as a solvent and al-so as a strong reducing agent. The highly active and recyclable catalyst has so many advantages including the use of mild reaction conditions, short reaction times in an environmentally benign solvent system. Moreover, the pre-pared catalyst could be recycled for up to five times with nearly the same high catalytic activity. Furthermore, the high catalytic activity and recyclability of the prepared catalyst are due to the strong catalyst-support interaction. The defect sites in the reduced Graphene oxide (rGO) act as nucleation centers that enable anchoring of both Pd/PVP nanoparticles and hence, minimize the possibility of agglomeration which leads to a severe decrease in the catalytic activity.
Elazab, Hany A. and El-Idreesy, Tamer T., "Polyvinylpyrrolidone - Reduced Graphene Oxide - Pd Nanoparticles as An Efficient Nanocomposite for Catalysis Applications in Cross-Coupling Reactions" (2019). Chemical Engineering. 55.