Document Type


Publication Date

Fall 10-7-2019


A simple green method for the synthesis of highly active palladium nanoparticles embedded on copper oxide as an efficient catalyst for ligand–free Heck cross–coupling reactions is developed. The approach is based on simultaneous chemical reduction of an aqueous solution of palladium and copper salts in microwave using hydrazine hydrate as the reducing agent. Full characterization of the catalyst with transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), reveal a size range of 25 ± 2 nm for the generated catalyst nanoparticles. The use of the generated Pd/CuO nanoparticles is highly advantageous due to the use of ethanol/water as an environmentally green solvent, mild reaction conditions. Furthermore, the synthesized Pd/CuO nanoparticles catalyst can be recycled and re-used up to five times with negligible effect on the efficiency having turnover number up to 6000 and turnover frequency reaching 72000 h-1.