In this paper empirical formulas for the chemical equilibrium of reactions involved in urea synthesis are derived. Their accuracy is checked against data obtained from the application of Aspen Plus to a urea plant based on Stamicarbon technology. The accurate results obtained support their application in the simulation of the reactions involved in urea synthesis.
Soliman, Moustafa A., "Empirical Modeling of Urea Synthesis Chemical Equilibria" (2019). Chemical Engineering. 78.