Document Type


Publication Date

Summer 7-2022


ABSTRACT Introduction: Orofacial pigmented lesions are one of the most significant changes that present in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), reflecting a wide range of clinical entities ranging from physiologic changes to signs of systemic disorders and even cancers. The research on oral pigmentations is limited, so it is important to pay close attention to this topic. The majority of original publications is either focused on a single lesion or are narrative reports with limited demographic information. As a result, the current study’s goal was to determine the incidence of orofacial pigmentation in ESRD patients on hemodialysis in a sample of Egyptian population. Methods: Case control study design with 262 patients, 131 cases from different hemodialysis centers at Benha Governorate, Egypt and 131 controls from the outpatient clinic of Faculty of Dentistry, Ain Shams University were recruited. The orofacial pigmentation changes were recorded for both groups according to the clinical features and frequencies were calculated. Results: Orofacial pigmented lesions were present in 115 out of 131 (84.7%) subjects with ESRD, and were present in 25 out of 131 (19.1%) control group with a statistically significant difference between both groups. The most common orofacial pigmentation found in ESRD patients were; abnormal lip pigmentation in 68 patients (51.9%), and petechiae in 37 patients (28.2%). Conclusions : Since ESRD patients have a high prevalence of orofacial pigmented lesions, mandatory oral screening is required to detect patients with impaired renal function. Healthcare providers should examine the impact of pigmented disorders on health-related quality of life. KEYWORDS: Egypt, facial, hemodialysis, oral, pigmentation.