Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist Gene Polimorphism Association with Obesity and Periodontal Disease Among Egyptians.

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Background: The role of Interlukin-1receptor antagonist (IL-1RN) gene in controlling inflammatory response cannot be overlooked and it is among these genes influenced by increased body fat mass. This pilot study aimed to investigate an association of IL-1RN gene polymorphism, body mass index and chronic periodontitis among Egyptians.

Methods: 45 patients of Egyptian heritage were enrolled. Clinical examination was carried out to record clinical attachment level (CAL), plaque index (PI) and gingival index (GI). Body mass index (BMI) was calculated and all subjects were categorized according to the World Health Organization criteria of the BMI. Variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism in the IL-1RN gene was detected by PCR amplification and fragment size analysis of the DNA extracted from patient’s blood.

Results: Means of CAL, PI and GI in both obese and overweight patients were significantly higher than normal weight subjects. Homozygote individuals for allele 1 showed the higher prevalence in normal weight group while genotype 1/2 showed higher prevalence in obese patients with a significant association between allele 2 and periodontal disease severity in obese patients at a risk of 8.826. When the regression model was analyzed, allele differences showed the highest effect on periodontal disease status followed by genotype, while the lowest changes were attributed to BMI. Conclusions: These primary findings provided a sufficient evidence to suggest that there is an association between VNTR gene polymorphism of IL-1RN and periodontal disease in obese patients.

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