Document Type


Publication Date

Fall 4-4-2020


Chronic kidney failure (CRF) is becoming a major public health problem worldwide particularly in developed countries with a higher prevalence of the renal disease. Hemodialysis is the most widely used treatment of nephropathy. Both the disease and the treatment could influence the patient’s oral status as well as alterations in salivary flow and salivary pH. There are guidelines for oral health care in patients with systemic diseases; additionally, a significant improvement in the underlying systemic diseases has been reported following treatment of the associated oral lesions

Materials and Methods: 114 patients of each gender with age vary from 30 to 60 years diagnosed with end-stage renal disease undergoing hemodialysis from 6 months up to 2 years were involved in this study from the Nephrology department at Benha University. Patients with a history of any serious sickness as malignancy or who undergo kidney transplants or those that take medication that would cause oral manifestations and smokers were excluded in our study. Oral examinations were done according to the modified WHO oral health survey 2013 criteria. Saliva was collected to measure the rate of flow and pH.

Results: Oral changes were present in all 114 (100%) CRF patients. Chronic periodontitis was

the most frequently seen disease in (81.6%) CRF patients. Alternative findings were xerostomia, burning mouth, uremic breath, petechial lesions, and pallor. In our study, we found an association between xerostomia and salivary flow rate. We also found that patients with lip pigmentation showed statistically significantly low mean blood urea levels.