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Objective: This study was done to evaluate the effect of the prepared Moringa oleifera-based root canal irrigant compared to conventionally used irrigants on the microhardness of root dentin and smear layer removal.

Materials and methods: One hundred freshly extracted teeth with single root were divided into 5 groups according to the irrigant used: group 1, saline; group 2, Moringa oleifera; group 3, Moringa oleifera + chlorhexidine; group 4, chlorhexidine; and group 5, sodium hypochlorite. Root canal preparation was done using Protaper universal system till size F5 using one of the irrigants after each file. Fifty teeth were prepared to measure dentin microhardness, while the remaining fifty were prepared for evaluation of the remaining debris and smear layer using stereomicroscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM) in each third of the canal.

Results: Chlorhexidine alone and combined with Moringa oleifera showed higher microhardness values in apical and coronal parts. In the middle parts, chlorhexidine followed by Moringa oleifera showed the highest results. SEM examination showed that none of the used irrigants has the ability to completely remove smear layer. However, Moringa oleifera group showed the least amount of smear layer on canal wall.

Conclusions: Moringa oleifera is a promising final irrigant solution alone or combined with chlorhexidine throughout the instrumentation. Moringa oleifera was proved to have a high effect as a chelating agent.