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Background: Oral lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory disease which is considered as a potential precancerous condition. Numerous studies have confirmed that inflammation is a strong risk factor for cancer development. Smoking is associated with potentially malignant disorders of the oral and oropharyngeal mucosa. The adverse consequences of smoking in various pathologies are mediated by its effects on the immune-inflammatory system. Little is known about the influence of cigarette smoke content on the course of OLP and inflammatory response. Methods: Twenty oral lichen planus smoker patients, 20 oral lichen planus non-smoker patients and 20 control patients were included in this work. Pain and clinical scores were calculated for each patient. Image analysis to calculate area percent for TLR-2 and CD34 immuno-expression was performed. Data was tabulated and statistically analyzed. Results: The present study showed no statistically significant difference in clinical and pain scores between the smoker and non-smoker groups. However, there was a significant difference in area percent values for TLR-2 and CD34 immuno-expression between the smoker and the non-smoker groups. Conclusion: Smoking enhanced TLR-2 and CD34 expression in OLP which are considered as inflammatory mediators and are contributing factors in the pathogenesis of oral lichen planus.

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