Gender gap and ecological footprint: are there country variations? Evidence from quantile panel regression

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The purpose of this research is to investigate the impact of the gender gap on the ecological footprint (EFP) corresponding to its different quantiles.


Quantile panel regression for 24 countries from the period 2006 to 2017 will be used, for the gender gap and other determinants of EFP.


Each factor affecting EFP differs in its impact depending on the level of EFP quantile it corresponds to. Gender gap was found to be increasing EFP for the higher quantiles and decreasing EFP for the lower quantiles.

Research limitations/implications

Environmental institutions should be considering the role of gender equality as a factor affecting the environment. Socioeconomic factors sometimes hamper the role of the female gender in preserving the environment. There are variations on how EFP factors differ between individual countries and this opens areas for further studies.


This research contributes to the current research studies by testing the impact of the gender gap on EFP instead of CO2 emission which is widely used in the literature. This topic is considered understudied and one of the few that uses the quantile panel regression to investigate this impact, none of which is used in gender and environment studies. Finally, the model used in the study uses a more comprehensive extension of the “Stochastic Impact by Regression on Pollution, Affluence and Technology” model compared to the existing empirical studies in this area.