Metformin and trimetazidine ameliorate diabetes-induced cognitive impediment in status epileptic rats

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© 2020 Elsevier Inc. Patients with diabetes and epilepsy are more prone to cognitive impairment, dementia, and even Alzheimer's disease. Diabetes-induced inflammatory process is one of the main contributing factors; however, the impact on seizure is not clear. The current study is aimed to examine the role of metformin and trimetazidine in the reduction of neuronal damage caused by inflammatory mediators and apoptotic factors in diabetic epileptic rodent model. Diabetic epileptic rats received orally either metformin (100 mg/kg) or trimetazidine (10 mg/kg) for 3 weeks exhibited reduced cognitive function and ameliorated the disturbed brain neurotransmission. Besides, they improved both the inflammatory status and the histopathologic alterations. Administration of metformin or trimetazidine ameliorated the deterioration in cognitive function in Morris water maze (MWM) and reduced seizure score. Furthermore, brain neurotransmitters glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were reverted back to their normal values. Both treatments reduced the rise in inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), apoptotic markers nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and caspase-3, and improved the pathological photomicrograph of the hippocampus of diabetic epileptic rats. Such effects were closely correlated to the observed increase in the adenosine triphosphate and adenosine diphosphate (ATP/ADP) ratio and reduction of death-associated protein (DAP) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). In conclusion, the current study shed light on the potential neuroprotective role of metformin and trimetazidine in the amelioration of cognitive function via hindering inflammatory processes in diabetic epileptic rats.

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