Loading amlodipine on diamond nanoparticles: A novel drug delivery system

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© 2019 Alawdi et al. Background: Diamond nanoparticles (Nanodiamond) are biocompatible drug delivery platforms with outstanding surface properties. Their passage into the brain has been confirmed previously. Thus, nanodiamond could provide a drug delivery system to shuttle several drugs through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) which represents a real challenge for the effective delivery of several drugs into the brain. Amlodipine is a calcium channel blocker that cannot pass through BBB and may elicit neuroprotective effects to reverse calcium-induced excito-toxicity and mitochondrial dysfunction that underlie several neurologic disorders including Alzheimer’s disease and stroke. Aim: The study aimed to investigate the loading of amlodipine on nanodiamond particles. Methods: Nanodiamond particles were oxidized in a strong oxidizing acidic mixture of sulfuric and nitric acids. Adsorption of amlodipine on nanodiamond particles was achieved in alkaline pH using various concentrations of sodium hydroxide. The loaded amlodipine was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Results: The highest percentage (41%) of loaded amlodipine onto nanodiamond particles was achieved in alkaline medium using 2 mM NaOH at a corresponding pH of 8.5. Also, characteristic FTIR bands of amlodipine and nanodiamond were shown obviously in the nanodiamond–amlodipine conjugates. Moreover, the successful loading of amlodipine on diamond nanoparticles was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates the successful loading of amlodipine onto nanodiamond particles. These findings offer a potential for applying diamond nanoparticles as a drug delivery system to shuttle amlodipine into the brain and open the door to deliver other similar drugs into the brain.

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