Encapsulation of cinnamon essential oil in whey protein enhances the protective effect against single or combined sub-chronic toxicity of fumonisin B1 and/or aflatoxin B1 in rats

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© 2018, Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature. Fumonisin B1 (FB1) and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) are fungal metabolites that frequently co-occur in foodstuffs and are responsible for mycotoxicosis and several primary cancers. Cinnamon essential oil (CEO) has a spacious range of benefit effects but also has some limitations owing to its strong taste or its interaction with some drugs. This study aimed to use the cinnamon oil emulsion droplets (COED) for the protection against oxidative stress, cytotoxicity, and reproductive toxicity in male Sprague-Dawley rats sub-chronically exposed to FB1 and/or AFB1. The composition of CEO was identified using GC-MS then was encapsulated using whey protein as wall material. Male rats were divided into eight groups and treated orally for 8 weeks as follows: control group, AFB1-trreated group (80 μg/kg b.w), FB1-treated group (100 mg/kg b.w), FB1 plus AFB1-treated group, and the groups treated with COED plus FB1 and/or AFB1. Blood and samples of the kidney, liver, and testis were collected for different analysis and histopathological examination. The GC-MS analysis revealed that cinnamaldehyde, α-copaene, trans-cinnamaldehyde, caryophyllene, and delta-cadinene were the main compounds in COE. The average size of COED was 235 ± 1.4 nm and the zeta potential was − 6.24 ± 0.56. Treatment with FB1 and/or AFB1 induced significant disturbances in the serum biochemical analysis, oxidative stress parameters, DNA fragmentation, gene expression, and testosterone and severe pathological changes in the tested organs. Moreover, treatment with both mycotoxins induced synergistic toxic effects. COED did not induce toxic effects and could normalize the majority of the tested parameters and improve the histological picture in rats treated with FB1 and/or AFB1. It could be concluded that COED induce potential protective effects against the single or combined exposure to FB1 and AFB1.

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