Polyphenols from Tamarix nilotica: LC–ESI-MSn profiling and in vivo antifibrotic activity

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2018 by the authors. Tamarix nilotica (Ehrenb.) Bunge (Tamaricaceae), an indigenous plant to the Middle East region, is well-known as a medicinal plant for treating many human ailments. The current study aimed at exploring the polyphenol profile of the alcohol soluble fraction of aqueous T. nilotica extract, assessing its in vivo antifibrotic activity and the possible underlying mechanism, to unravel the impact of quantitative difference of sulphated polyphenols content on the antifibrotic activity of T. nilotca grown in two different habitats. Polyphenol profiling of T. nilotica extracts was performed using HPLC-HRESI-QTOF-MS-MS. The major polyphenol components included sulphated flavonoids, phenolic acids and free aglycones. The antifibrotic activity was evaluated through carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis in rats. Biochemical evaluations revealed that both fractions ameliorated the increased levels of hepatic aminotransferases, lipid peroxidation, hydroxyproline, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). Moreover, both fractions reduced catalase activity (CAT) and enhanced hepatic glutathione (GSH) content. Histopathological imaging undoubtedly confirmed such results. In conclusion, the T. nilotica polyphenol-rich fraction exhibited potential antifibrotic activity in rats. Significant alterations in GSH levels were recorded based on the sulphated polyphenol metabolite content.

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