Beta vulgaris subspecies cicla var. flavescens (Swiss chard): Flavonoids, hepatoprotective and hypolipidemic activities

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The novel flavonoids, 2″,2″′-di-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl-vicenin II, a di-C-glycosyl flavone, and herbacetin 3-O-β-xylopyranosyl- (1″′→2″)-O-β-glucopyranoside, were isolated from the leaves of Beta vulgaris subspecies cicla L. var. flavescens, an edible plant which is consumed in the Mediterranean areas, additional to the known flavonoids, 6-C-glucosyl isoscutellarein, vitexin-(1″′→2″)-O-β-xylopyranosyl, vitexin-(1″′→2″)-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl and vitexin. All metabolites were established by conventional methods of analysis and their structures were confirmed by spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D-NMR and by HR-ESIMS, as well. The extract of the plant leaves shows hepatoprotective effects in rats intoxicated by administration of acetaminophen and exhibits hypolipidemic activity in rats with high-fat-diet induced hypercholesterolemia. The evaluation was done through measuring the liver function enzymes (aspartate and alanine aminotransferases and alkaline phosphatase, the lipid profile (total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides) and histopathological analysis of liver slides.

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