Natural products and their derivatives against coronavirus: A review of the non-clinical and pre-clinical data

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© 2020 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Several corona viral infections have created serious threats in the last couple of decades claiming the death of thousands of human beings. Recently, corona viral epidemic raised the issue of developing effective antiviral agents at the earliest to prevent further losses. Natural products have always played a crucial role in drug development process against various diseases, which resulted in screening of such agents to combat emergent mutants of corona virus. This review focuses on those natural compounds that showed promising results against corona viruses. Although inhibition of viral replication is often considered as a general mechanism for antiviral activity of most of the natural products, studies have shown that some natural products can interact with key viral proteins that are associated with virulence. In this context, some of the natural products have antiviral activity in the nanomolar concentration (e.g., lycorine, homoharringtonine, silvestrol, ouabain, tylophorine, and 7-methoxycryptopleurine) and could be leads for further drug development on their own or as a template for drug design. In addition, a good number of natural products with anti-corona virus activity are the major constituents of some common dietary supplements, which can be exploited to improve the immunity of the general population in certain epidemics.

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