Ceratonia siliqua (Carob-Locust Bean) outgoing and potential trends of phytochemical, economic and medicinal merits

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Ceratonia siliqua (Carob); is a Mediterranean legume globally recognized for its commercial value, being used as a cold beverage, in bakery and confectionary products. It is widely used as a Cocoa substitute not only due to its richness in sugar but rather the absence of caffeine and theobromine stimulant action. Both fruit pulp and seeds are of potential nutritive and medicinal values. The pulp comprises a high sugar content dominantly sucrose as well as polyphenols viz. phenolic acids, flavonoids and tannins. Seeds potential usage is attributed to its locust bean gum (LBG), commercially and pharmaceutically used as gelling and stiffening agent. Carob syrup is a traditional product native to the Mediterranean region, enriched in D-pinitol sugar of anti-diabetic effect. Considering the diversity of carob active constituents’ classes, a myriad of biological effects is recorded to include antioxidant, anticancer, antimicrobial and anti-hyperlipidemic effects. This book chapter presents up to date information on carob usage and chemistry while providing insight on research questions or applications yet to be addressed.

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