Recent Updates in Pharmacological Properties of Chitooligosaccharides

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© 2019 Ilias Marmouzi et al. Chemical structures derived from marine foods are highly diverse and pharmacologically promising. In particular, chitooligosaccharides (COS) present a safe pharmacokinetic profile and a great source of new bioactive polymers. This review describes the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antidiabetic properties of COS from recent publications. Thus, COS constitute an effective agent against oxidative stress, cellular damage, and inflammatory pathogenesis. The mechanisms of action and targeted therapeutic pathways of COS are summarized and discussed. COS may act as antioxidants via their radical scavenging activity and by decreasing oxidative stress markers. The mechanism of COS antidiabetic effect is characterized by an acceleration of pancreatic islets proliferation, an increase in insulin secretion and sensitivity, a reduction of postprandial glucose, and an improvement of glucose uptake. COS upregulate the GLUT2 and inhibit digestive enzyme and glucose transporters. Furthermore, they resulted in reduction of gluconeogenesis and promotion of glucose conversion. On the other hand, the COS decrease inflammatory mediators, suppress the activation of NF-B, increase the phosphorylation of kinase, and stimulate the proliferation of lymphocytes. Overall, this review brings evidence from experimental data about protective effect of COS.

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