Randomized double-blinded pilot clinical study of the antidiabetic activity of balanites aegyptiaca and uplc-esi-ms/ms identification of its metabolites

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© 2017 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. Context: Balanites aegyptiaca Del. (Zygophyllaceae) fruits are traditionally known for the treatment of hyperglycaemia. Several in vitro and in vivo studies proposed some mechanisms of action. However, clinical trials in human beings were never reported to date. Objectives: To investigate the antidiabetic efficacy of the 70% ethanol extract of the pericarps of B. aegyptiaca (BE) within a nutritional intervention in elderly people. Materials and methods: Ultra-performance electrospray ionization-mass spectroscopy (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS) analysis was used for metabolic profiling of BE which was incorporated in hard gelatine capsules (400 mg/day) and tested on 30 type 2 diabetes (T2D) Egyptian patients for 8 weeks. According to sex, age and body mass index participants were divided into two equivalent groups, placebo and treatment. Results: Thirteen compounds were identified in BE using UPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis among which five steroidal saponins, seven phenolic compounds and a sterol glucoside. At the end of the 8-week treatment, the treated group showed 26.88% decrease in 2 h postprandial plasma glucose relative to 2.6% increase in the placebo group, while fasting plasma glucose was reduced to 10.3%. Treatment with BE capsules for 8 weeks produced significant reduction in the plasma triglyceride, total cholesterol and low-density lipo-protein cholesterol by 9.0, 12.76 and 21.35%, respectively, with 29.8% increase in the high-density lipopro-tein cholesterol. Plasma alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase were reduced by 42.6 and 43.3%, respectively. Discussion and conclusion: Administration of the BE capsules to T2D resulted in significant improvements in the glycaemic markers and the lipid profile, without adverse effects or hypoglycaemia.

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