2-Methoxyestradiol inhibits high fat diet-induced obesity in rats through modulation of adipose tissue macrophage infiltration and immunophenotype

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© 2020 Elsevier B.V. Recently, experimental studies demonstrated that 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME2) ameliorates high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and restores insulin sensitivity. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects are unveiled yet. The current study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that 2ME2 exerts its effects by modulating adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) accumulation, polarization and immunophenotypes. The experiment was carried out in males Wistar rats (n = 28) for 13 consecutive weeks. In HFD-fed group; body weight, glucose intolerance, serum insulin, HOMA-IR, lipid profile and adipose tissue (AT) weight were significantly higher compared to normal standard diet (NSD)- fed rats. However, treatment of HFD-fed rats with 2ME2 (200 μg/kg/day; i.p. from the beginning of the 9th week) resulted in significant enhancements in all these parameters as compared to HFD-fed rats. Treatment with 2ME2 was associated with a significant reduction in macrophage infiltration in the AT, shifting macrophage polarization towards M2 phenotype as indicated by significant decrease in the expression of pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages markers (IL-6, IL-1β, CD11c and iNOS) and concurrent significant increase in the M2 anti-inflammatory macrophage markers (Arginase 1 and IL-10). 2ME2 ameliorates HFD-induced obesity and glucose intolerance through inhibition of ATM infiltration in AT and shifting macrophage polarization from pro-inflammatory M1 to M2 anti-inflammatory phenotypes.

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