A bioactivity-guided fractionation of the ethyl acetate fraction of the flowers of Onopordum alexandrinum L. (Asteraceae) yielded a new flavonoidal glycoside designated as acacetin-7-O-galacturonide (9), alongside with nine known flavonoids; 6-methoxy-apigenin (hispidulin) (1), acacetin (2), apigenin (3), luteolin (4), kaempferol (5), eriodictyol (6), apigenin-7-O-glucoside (7), luteolin-7-O-glucoside (8), and kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (10). The compounds were assayed for their hepatoprotective activity against CCl4-induced hepatic cell damage in rats and free radical scavenging activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Compounds 4, 6, 9, and 10 have not been previously reported from flowers of O. alexandrinum L., and this is the first report of acacetin-7-O-galacturonide (9) in nature which has also shown significant hepatoprotective and free radical scavenging effects. The isolated compounds were identified using different spectroscopic methods (UV, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, HMQC, HMBC, and COSY)
Salama, Maha and Ezzat, Shahira Mohammed, "A New Hepato-protective Flavone Glycoside from the Flowers of Onopordum alexandrinum Growing in Egypt" (2011). Pharmacy. 492.