Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the major risk factors for COVID-19 complications as it is one of the chronic immune-compromising conditions especially if patients have uncontrolled diabetes, poor HbA1c and/or irregular blood glucose levels. Diabetic patients' mortality rates with COVID-19 are higher than those of cardiovascular or cancer patients. Recently, Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine has shown successful results in reversing diabetes in both rats and clinical trials based on different mechanisms from aerobic glycolysis to beta cells regeneration. BCG is a multi-face vaccine that has been used extensively in protection from tuberculosis (TB) and leprosy and has been repositioned for treatment of bladder cancer, diabetes and multiple sclerosis. Recently, COVID-19 epidemiological studies confirmed that universal BCG vaccination reduced morbidity and mortality in certain geographical areas. Countries without universal policies of BCG vaccination (Italy, Nederland, USA) have been more severely affected compared to countries with universal and long-standing BCG policies that have shown low numbers of reported COVID-19 cases. Some countries have started clinical trials that included a single dose BCG vaccine as prophylaxis from COVID-19 or an attempt to minimize its side effects. This proposed research aims to use BCG vaccine as a double-edged weapon countering both COVID-19 and diabetes, not only as protection but also as therapeutic vaccination. The work includes a case study of regenerated pancreatic beta cells based on improved C-peptide and PCPRI laboratory findings after BCG vaccination for a 9 year old patient. The patient was re-vaccinated based on a negative tuberculin test and no scar at the site of injection of the 1st BCG vaccination at birth. The authors suggest and invite the scientific community to take into consideration the concept of direct BCG re-vaccination (after 4 weeks) because of the reported gene expressions and exaggerated innate immunity consequently. As the diabetic MODY-5 patient (mutation of HNF1B, Val2Leu) was on low dose Riomet® while eliminating insulin gradually, a simple analytical method for metformin assay was recommended to ensure its concentration before use as it is not approved yet by the Egyptian QC labs.
Avoiding COVID-19 complications with diabetic patients could be achieved by multi-dose Bacillus Calmette–Guérin vaccine: a case study of beta cells regeneration Ayoub, B.M.1; Ramadan, E.2; Ashoush, N.3; Tadros, M. M.4; Hendy, M. S.5; Elmazar, M. M.2; Mousa, S. A.6 Die Pharmazie, Volume 75, Number 8, August 2020, pp. 375-380(6)