Biochemistry of idiopathic scoliosis: From discovery to diagnostic biomarkers

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© Springer Japan KK 2018. Idiopathic scoliosis (IS) is a condition where the spinal curve is deformed. IS appears at the onset of puberty and is most often seen in women. Current literature reveals potential biomarkers of the onset and progression of IS, which include hormones, systemic factors, hematological factors, and bone metabolism factors. Hormones that include growth hormone, melatonin, estrogen, ghrelin, and leptin, systemic factors, such as osteopontin and Gi proteins; proteins involved in bone metabolism, such as matrilin-1, cartilage oligomeric matrix protein and osteocalcin; and the hematological protein calmodulin, have been implicated as potential diagnostic biomarkers in IS. Most of these biochemical factors are interconnected through signaling pathways. In this chapter we discuss the validity of published studies and the contradictory data for each factor. We will also elaborate on the hypotheses associated with these factors and their potential relevance in the pathogenesis of IS.

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