Nanographene Oxide for Enhanced Dissolution Rate and Antibacterial Activity of Cefdinir

Document Type


Publication Date

Winter 2-8-2021


Cefdinir is an orally active antimicrobial agent used in treatment of various respiratory tract infections. It is a class IV drug having low dissolution rate which resulted in poor oral bioavailability. Nanographene oxide was utilized as a drug carrier to enhance the dissolution rate and antibacterial activity of cefdinir. Synthesis of graphene oxide was achieved using purified natural graphite powder. This employed the modified Hummers’ method followed by ultrasonication for exfoliation of the graphite oxide in ethanol to produce nanographene oxide sheets. Cefdinir was loaded on nanographene oxide alone or in combination with HPMC or PVP. The prepared formulations were characterized using FTIR, DTA, PXRD, TEM, SEM and dissolution rate studies. The study was extended to investigate the antibacterial activity of the prepared formulations by measuring MIC, MBC and the activity against biofilm forming bacteria. The characterization techniques suggest intercalation of drug particles in the space between the sheets of nanographene oxide. This was reflected on the drug dissolution rate which was significantly enhanced. This enhancement was superior in the formula containing HPMC. All the prepared formulation showed reduction in the MIC of cefdinir and this reduction was more pronounced in the formula containing HPMC. Loading of cefdinir on different nanographene formulae resulted in significant reduction in the persistence of biofilm compared with drug solution. Loading cefdinir on nanographene oxide is a promising strategy for enhanced dissolution rate and antibacterial activity.