Fabrication and characterization of Agarwood extract-loaded nanocapsules and evaluation of their toxicity and anti-inflammatory activity on RAW 264.7 cells and in zebrafish embryos
Aquilaria malaccensis has been traditionally used to treat several medical disorders including inflammation. However, the traditional claims of this plant as an anti-inflammatory agent has not been substantially evaluated using modern scientific techniques. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of Aquilaria malacensis leaf extract (ALEX-M) and potentiate its activity through nano-encapsulation. The extract-loaded nanocapsules were fabricated using water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) emulsion method and characterized via multiple techniques including DLS, TEM, FTIR, and TGA. The toxicity and the anti-inflammatory activity of ALEX-M and the extract-loaded nanocapsules (ALEX-M-PNCs) were evaluated in-vitro on RAW 264.7 macrophages and in-vivo on zebrafish embryos. The nanocapsules demonstrated spherical shape with mean particle diameter of 167.13 ± 1.24 nm, narrow size distribution (PDI = 0.29 ± 0.01), and high encapsulation efficiency (87.36 ± 1.81%). ALEX-M demonstrated high viability at high concentrations in RAW 264.7 cells and zebrafish embryos, however, ALEX-M-PNCs showed relatively higher cytotoxicity. Both free and nanoencapsulated extract expressed anti-inflammatory effects through significant reduction of the pro-inflammatory mediator nitric oxide (NO) production in LPS/IFNγ-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages and zebrafish embryos in a concentration-dependent manner. The findings highlight that ALEX-M can be recognized as a potential anti-inflammatory agent, and its anti-inflammatory activity can be potentiated by nano-encapsulation. Further studies are warranted toward investigation of the mechanistic and immunomodulatory roles of ALEX-M.
Ramadan, Eman and Eissa, Manar A., "Fabrication and characterization of Agarwood extract-loaded nanocapsules and evaluation of their toxicity and anti-inflammatory activity on RAW 264.7 cells and in zebrafish embryos" (2021). Pharmacy. 572.
fabricate and characterize polymeric nanocapsules loaded with Aquilaria malaccensis leaf extract (ALEX-M). The toxicity and the anti-inflammatory activity of ALEX-M, the prepared extract-loaded nanocapsules (ALEX-M-PNCs) and the blank nanocapsules (B-PNCs) were evaluated in-vitro on RAW 264.7 macrophages and in-vivo using zebrafish embryos.