Document Type


Publication Date

Winter 2-7-2022


Camelthorn, Alhagi maurorum Boiss, family Fabaceae has long been used in African folk medicine owing to its richness in pharmacologically active metabolites. The crude extract (CEAM), ethylacetatefraction(EFAM)andn-butanol(BFAM)fractionofA.maurorumaerialpartswereinvestigated for their total polyphenols and oral antiulcer activity using in-vitro and in-vivo models. The major phenolic compound was isolated from the polyphenol-rich EFAM fraction and identified by conventional and spectroscopic methods of analysis as isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside. Furthermore, standardization of EAFM using UPLC-PDA-UV quantified isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside as 262.91 0.57 g/mg of the fraction. Analysis of EFAM using UPLC-PDA-MS/MS revealed tentative identification of 25 polyphenolic compounds. EFAM exhibited the most potent free radical scavenging activity against DPPH, with an IC50 (27.73±1.85 µg/mL) and an FRAP value of (176.60±5.21 µM Trolox equivalent (TE)/mg fraction) in comparison with CEAM and BFAM. Acetic acid-induced oral ulcers in a rat model were used to evaluate the healing properties of A. maurorum aerial parts. EFAM significantly decreased tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) by 36.4% and 50.8%, respectively, in the ulcer tissues while, CEAM and BFAM exhibited lower activity at the same dose. In addition, EFAM led to a significant (p < 0.0001) rise in the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a cell proliferation marker. A. maurorum exhibited a potent healing effect in acetic acid-induced oral ulcers in rats by mitigating the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and improving PCNA expression.


Alhagi maurorum ethyl acetate fraction, being a rich source of polyphenols, accelerated the healing process in tongue ulcers owing to its high antioxidant capacity, as represented by its potent free radical scavenging activity against DPPH, FRAP, its anti-inflammatory activity via decreasing the mucosal content of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-2, and its promotion of cell proliferation by increasing the expression of PCNA in ulcerative lesions. These findings suggested that A. maurorum is a good candidate for oral ulcer treatment, and warrants further clinical studies.



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