Document Type


Publication Date

Winter 2-6-2022


Chemical investigation of the aerial parts of Ammania aegyptiaca ethanol extract (AEEE) showed high concentrations of polyphenol and flavonoid content, with notable antioxidant activity. Undescribed acylated diglucoside flavonol myricetin 3-O-β-4C1-(600-O-galloyl glucopyranoside) 7-Oβ-4C1-glucopyranoside (MGGG) was isolated from the aerial parts of AEEE, along with four known polyphenols that had not been characterized previously from AEEE. The inhibitory effects of MGGG, AEEE, and all compounds against α-amylase, pancreatic lipase and β-glucosidase were assessed. In addition, molecular docking was used to determine the inhibition of digestive enzymes, and this confirmed that the MGGG interacted strongly with the active site residues of these enzymes, with the highest binding free energy against α-amylase (−8.99 kcal/mol), as compared to the commercial drug acarbose (−5.04 kcal/mol), thus justifying its use in the potential management of diabetes. In streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats, AEEE significantly decreased high serum glucose, α-amylase activity and serum liver and kidney function markers, as well as increasing insulin blood level. Moreover,AEEEimprovedthelipidprofileofdiabeticanimals,increasedsuperoxidedismutase (SOD) activity, and inhibited lipid peroxidation. Histopathological studies proved the decrease in pancreas damage and supported the biochemical findings. These results provide evidence that AEEE and MGGG possess potent antidiabetic activity, which warrants additional investigation.


This is the first study to investigate the phenolic constituents of a flowering whole plant ethanol extract of AE,in addition to the isolationofmyricetin3-O-β-4C1-(600-O-galloyl glucopyranoside)-7-O-β-4C1-glucopyranoside (MGGG), which has not been reported previously in nature. According to the results, AEEE effectively improved hyperglycemia and lipid profile while reducing oxidative stress in diabetic animals, with no signs of toxicity. In addition, histopathological investigations demonstrated a decrease in pancreas damage, which was aligned with the biochemical findings. This result obviously indicates the potential efficacy of AEEE in the management of T2D. In addition, this result suggests antioxidant activity, the inhibition of digestive enzyme actions, and in vivo antidiabetic activity potential pathways for the treatment of T2D. This encourages further investigationsofAEEEtodiscoveritsmechanismofactionatthemolecularlevelandthesignaling pathways involved, in addition to prospective prophylaxis against and/or curing diabetes



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.