Document Type


Publication Date

Winter 12-27-2021


Salvadora persica L. (S. persica, Siwak) has been used for many centuries as oral hygiene tools, particularly in Saudi Arabia. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of S. persica petroleum ether extract (SPE) as an intracanal bactericidal for endodontictreatmentagainstEnterococcusfaecalis.CalciumhydroxideCa(OH)2 gold standard intracanal medicament was used for comparison.Methods.Thegaschromatographymassspectrometry(GC/MS)analysis was carried out to identify the components of SPE. First, the consistency of SPE was accomplished according to ANSI/ADA specification no 57. Forty-five single-rooted mandibular premolars were infected with that of E. faecalis suspension. Colony-forming units (CFU) were counted before the medicaments’ application (CFU-1) and after seven days of their applications (CFU-2). Group I: SPE, Group II: positive control Ca(OH)2,and group iii:saline solution negative control.Themicrodilutionmethodwasappliedtodetermineminimalinhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of SPE. Results. Thirty-two compounds were identified (89.09%), with main components of benzyl isothiocyanate(BITC)(33.32%) and steroids(34%).CFUbeforeandafterusingSPEand Ca(OH)2 recorded a statistically significant reduction in bacterial count (P � 0.006) and (P � 0.01), respectively. There was an insignificantdifferencebetweenCFUafterusingSPEandCa(OH)2(P � 0.210).On the contrary,comparing both medicaments with thenegativecontrolsalinegroupresultedinsignificantdifferences,(P � 0.001)and(P � 0.007),respectively.Moreover,the equality of minimum bactericidal concentration(MBC)and minimum inhibitory concentration(MIC) ofSPEisrecorded.Conclusion.This finding could be referred to as the high content of bactericidal BITC in synergism with other antimicrobial components, representing 70.71% of SPE. Thus, SPE is a good candidate as an intracanal medicament, which warrants further investigation.


Within the limitations of this Ex vivo study, SPE can efficiently eradicate E. faecalis from the root canal system by many antimicrobial components.It could be used as a good alternative to calcium hydroxide in endodontic therapy; however,further studies are recommended to investigate its efficacy in an in vivo assessment and inhibitory effects on biofilm formation before engaging it in regular dental practice.



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.