The Impact of Energy Issues on Regional Balance. Comparative Study Between the Caspian and Eastern Mediterranean Regions

Document Type


Publication Date



The study examines the impact of energy pipeline projects on the regional balance in two regions, the Caspian Sea and Eastern Mediterranean in three chapters. The First chapter discusses the regional balance in each region, prior to the establishment of pipeline projects. The Second chapter discusses the most important pipeline projects in each region, including some of the unfinished projects with a lasting impact. The Third chapter analyzes the impact of the pipeline projects, while addressing the influence played by the major powers on the regional balance in each of the two regions. The study concludes a set of results. The balance of power had changed after the pipeline projects. In the case of the Caspian Sea, Russian hegemony ended and the United States became a regional player depriving Russia from returning to regional hegemony. China's influence has been expanding and became a strong regional competitor, that made an impact on US strategy-making. In the Eastern Mediterranean, regional imbalances have been exacerbated by Turkey's policies, which have been excluded from most projects transferring energy to the European markets. This necessitated external intervention to prevent further deterioration and complications between Turkey and Cyprus. The study concludes that the EU 2050 Strategy restructures the entire energy market, which could be reflected on all pipeline projects from the Caspian and Eastern Mediterranean. Keywords: Energy, Pipelines, Major Powers, Caspian Sea, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Iran, United States, Russia, China, Turkey, European Union, Eastern Mediterranean, Egypt, Israel, Syria, Regional Balance, Unbalanced Multipolarity, Offensive Realism, Hegemonic Stability.