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Solid waste management (SWM) is one of the most critical global challenges nowadays. It has a severe negative effect on the triple bottom line of sustainability. Construction and demolition waste (CDW) contributes about 50% of the total global annual generated SW. In the particular case of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region including Egypt, the SW problem has become a major challenge, and the need to find sustainable solutions is overwhelming. However, the region faces several challenges that hinder the development of an effective and efficient SWM system. This has resulted in the predominance of unsustainable SWM practices such as indiscriminate disposals. The aim of this paper is to investigate the escalating problem of SW in the MENA region, while focusing on CDW in Egypt as a part of the total generated SW, by reviewing the most recent research papers, and technical and governmental reports on the SW problem. The main challenges towards effective and efficient SWM systems and recommendations for improvement are gathered in this study based on the explored literature. Findings from this study are expected to be beneficial to local and central governments, academics, construction industry practitioners, and policymakers contending with the problems of SW in the MENA region and especially CDW in Egypt.