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Purpose: To evaluate the effect of osseointegrated implants versus mucosal inserts used for retention of complete dentures. Materials and Methods: Twelve completely edentulous patients were selected for this study and divided into two groups of six. Group I received implant retained maxillary overdentures, while group II received maxillary overdentures retained by muchor zirconium mucosal inserts. Bone changes in both groups were evaluated using cone beam ct at insertion and after six and twelve months. Results: The results showed that the bone changes produced in mucosal overdenture wearers were greater than those produced in implant overdenture wearers. Conclusion: Zirconium mucosal inserts caused more bone changes than osseointegrated implants.